Friday, February 11, 2011


Module 1: Ibalon
Reported by: Cielo Jane M. Miake
Sources: Philippine Literature from Ancient Times to The Present By Teofilo del Castillo y Tuazon and Buenaventura S. Medina, Jr.


The epic tells the story of three Bicol heroes.

Baltog, a mighty warrior of Batavara, came by chance upon the lush and virginal beauty of Ibalon. Extensive in area, rich in soil, and free form typhoons, Ibalon attracted Baltog's men to found a kingdom. In the course of time, Ibalon became prosperous and peaceful.

But one day, the peace and prosperity of the land was threatened not by conquering strangers or black men but by a huge man-eating wild boar. The ferocious beast destroyed the crops and killed the people on its path. Vast areas in Ibalon were soon reduced to waste and countless people were either killed or maimed. Baltog stood dumb-founded as he surveyed the depredation wrought on his kingdom.

One day, Baltog left his home alone, planning to confront his enemy. Under the cover of night, he went to the muddy field to wait for his enemy. Under the cover of night, he went to the muddy field to wait for his enemy.

After much waiting, when the moon was bright, the man-eating wild boar came snorting, tearing crops as it went along. Baltog hid under the bushes. When the boar came within his reach, he sprang at it like a panther. Man and beast tumbled to the ground in mortal combat. Fortunately, Baltog was able to pin down the beast and, summoning all his strength, he finally subdued the boar. Baltog’s victory put an end to a terror that had ravished his kingdom for a time.

Ibalon, however, saw few years of peace. One day, huge carabaos followed by winged sharks and giant crocodiles rushed to Ibalon. Every mortal was in fright: death and destruction took a heavy toll. The mighty Baltog could no longer defend his kingdom, for the years had sapped his strength. Defenseless Ibalon had become an easy prey.

Luck, however, was still with Ibalon. On that day, Handiong, a mighty warrior of the neighboring kingdom, happened to pass by Ibalon. Apprised of the plight of the people, Handiong came to their rescue.

Handiong and his brave seasoned men threw themselves at their stampeding and winging wild enemies. For untold hours, Ibalon saw mortal combat. Blood flowed freely over the land and the streams. One by one the beasts were slain. Before sunset, Handiong and his men emerged the victors.

Only one monster escaped Handiong’s mortal wrath; this was Oriol, the serpent who could transform itself into a beautiful woman. Handiong , however, repulsed the advances of the temptress. To save itself from extinction, Oriol struck alliance with Handiong. Through its help, the salimaws or evil spirits of the mountains were routed out. This last victory brought to an end the second threat to Ibalon’s peaceful existence.

Ibalon, under Handiong’s wise administration, became rich and peaceful again. But Handiong was getting on in years and outside his domain, Rabut, was eyeing his kingdom. This monster was far more terrible, for under its spell, mortals could be changed into stones.

Luck again was with Ibalon. Handiong had mighty friend, a young warrior named Bantong.

Bantong, in command of a handful of men, trekked one day into the monster’s lair and found the enemy taking its nap. With cat-like agility, Bantong came near his prey and with a mighty stroke delivered mortal blows at the monster’s neck. The wounded monster writhed in agony and in his struggle for breath, the earth shuddered and cracked and the waters of the sea heaved and rolled landward.

With the death throes of the monster over, the dust clouds parted and Ibalon underwent great physical change. New islets began to dot the waters near the peninsula; the Inarinan River changed its course; and a dark lake had replaced the mountain at Bato. Finally, a tall and perfect cone reared its head to lord over the levellwd ruins. This perfect cone is now known as the Mayon Volcano.

Thus ends Ibalon.

Background Information:

Teofilo Del Catillo y Tuazon

            Born in Lingayen, Pangasinan.
            Graduate of the University of Chicago, 1929.
            Took post graduate studies from the University of Chicago and North-western     
            Educator since 1935; taught at Philippine Women’s University, Adamson University, De  
            la Salle College, National Teachers College, and Feati University.
Author of:

            A brief History of Philippine Literature, Lyrics Under Two Flags,
            The Saga of Jose P. Laurel (with Jose del Castillo)
            Living Biographies (with Thomas, Thomas, and Fosdick), and
Rodriguez Ang Dakilang Ama  (with D.H Soriano, and Luis L. Alfonso).

Bicol Epic Poetry: The Ibalon – An origin tale, the Ibalon tries to explain how man came to be. Much like the story of Adam and Eve; it follows the tale of the first man and woman in the regions Aslon and Ibalon (now Camarines, Sorsogon, Catanduanes and Albay).

Literary Concepts:

Surrealism: Life goes beyond the "real" to the "super real"including the world of dreams and unconscious and emphasizing on spontaneity feeling and sincerity, closely linked to ROMANTICISM.


 The conflict of the story was when the heroes of Ibalon fought against monsters before establishing their own village and learning to farm. The Ibalon also has an account reminiscent of the blood story, where rains poured for days and almost destroyed the whole land. 

Confirmation of Learning:

1.  When did Handiong and his men emerged the victors.?
2. Who was the mighty warrior of the neighboring kingdom, happened to pass by Ibalon.?
3. Why did Baltog left his home alone?
4. Who was the only one monster escaped Handiong’s mortal wrath?
5. This perfect cone is now known as the _____________?

Module 1:Hinilawod
Reported by: Cielo Jane M. Miake

When the goddess of the eastern sky Alunsina (also known as Laun Sina, “The Unmarried One”) reached maidenhood, the king of the gods, Kaptan, decreed that she should marry. All the unmarried gods of the different domains of the universe tried to win her hand to no avail. She chose to marry a mortal, Datu Paubari, the mighty ruler of Halawod.

Her decision angered her other suitors. They plotted to bring harm to the newlyweds. A meeting of the council of gods was called by Maklium-sa-t’wan, god of the plains, where a decision by those present was made to destroy Halawod by flood.
Alunsina and Paubari escaped harm through the assistance of Suklang Malayon, the goddess and guardian of happy homes and sister of Alunsina, who learned of the evil plot and warned the two so they were able to seek refuge on higher ground.
After the flood waters subsided, Paubari and Alunsina returned to the plains secretly. They settled near the mouth of the Halawod river.
Several months later Alunsina became pregnant and told Paubari to prepare the siklot, things necessary for childbirth. She delivered a set of triplets and summoned the high priest Bungot-Banwa to perform the rites of the gods of Mount Madya-as (the mountain abode of the gods) to ensure the good health of the children. The high priest promptly made an altar and burned some alanghiran fronds and a pinch of kamangyan. When the ceremony was over he opened the windows of the north side of the room and a cold northernly wind came in and suddenly the three infants were transformed into strong, handsome young men.
Labaw Donggon, the eldest of the three, asked his mother to prepare his magic cape, hat, belt and kampilan (sword) for he heard of a place called Handug where a beautiful maiden named Angoy Ginbitinan lived.
The journey took several days. He walked across plains and valleys, climbed up mountains until he reached the mouth of the Halawod river. When he finally met the maiden’s father and asked for her hand in marriage, the father asked him to fight the monster Manalintad as part of his dowry. He went off to confront the monster and with the help of his magic belt Labaw Donggon killed the monster and to prove his feat he brought to Angoy Ginbitinan’s father the monster’s tail.
After the wedding, Labaw Donggon proceeded home with his new bride. Along the way they met a group of young men who told him that they were on their way to Tarambang Burok to win the hand of Abyang Durunuun, sister of Sumpoy, the lord of the underworld and whose beauty was legendary.
Labaw Donggon and his bride continued on their journey home. The moment they arrived home Labaw Donggon told his mother to take care of his wife because he is taking another quest, this time he was going to Tarambang Burok.
Before he can get to the place he has to pass a ridge guarded by a giant named Sikay Padalogdog who has a hundred arms. The giant would not allow Labaw Donggon to go through without a fight. However, Sikay Padalogdog was no match to Labaw Donggon’s prowess and skill in fighting so he gave up and allowed him to continue.
Labaw Donggon won the hand of Abyang Durunuun and also took her home. Before long he went on another journey, this time it is to Gadlum to ask for the hand of Malitong Yawa Sinagmaling Diwata who is the young bride of Saragnayan, the lord of darkness.
This trip required him to use his biday nga inagta (black boat) on which he sailed across the seas for many months, went across the region of the clouds, and passed the land of stones until finally he reached the shores of Tulogmatian which was the seaside fortress of Saragnayan. The moment he set foot on the ground Saragnayan asked him, “Who are you and why are you here?”
To which he answered, “I am Labaw Donggon, son of Datu Paubari and goddess Alunsina of Halawod. I came for the beautiful Malitong Yawa Sinagmaling Diwata.”
Saragnayan laughed. He told Labaw Donggon that what he wished for was impossible to grant because she was his wife. Labaw Donggon then challenged Saragnayan to a duel saying that whoever wins will have her.
The challenge was accepted and they started fighting. Labaw Donggon submerged Saragnayan under water for seven years, but when he let go of him, Saragnayan was still alive. The latter uprooted a coconut tree and started beating Labaw Donggon with it. He survived the beating but was not able to surpass the powers of Saragnayan’s pamlang (amulet) and eventually he gave up and was imprisoned by Saragnayan beneath his house.
Back home Angoy Ginbitinan and Abyang Durunuun both delivered sons. Angoy Ginbitinan’s child was named Aso Mangga and Abyang Durunuun’s son was called Abyang Baranugon.
Only a few days after they were born, Aso Mangga and Abyang Baranugon embarked to look for their father. They rode their sailboats through the region of eternal darkness, passed the region of the clouds and the land of stones, finally reaching Saragnayan’s home. Saragnayan noticed that Abyang Baranugon’s umbilical cord have not yet been removed, he laughed and told the child to go home to his mother.
Abyang Baranugon was slighted by the remarks and immediately challenged Saragnayan to a duel. They fought and Abyang Baranugon defeated Saragnayan and won his father’s freedom.
Labaw Donggon’s defeat and subsequent imprisonment by the Lord of Darkness also angered his brothers. Humadapnon was so enraged that he swore to the gods of Madya-as that he would wreak revenge on all of Saragnayan’s kinsmen and followers.
Humadapnon prepared to go to Saragnayan’s domain. He employed the aid of Buyong Matanayon of Mount Matiula who was well-known for his skill in swordsmanship. For their journey they rode on a sailboat called biday nga rumba-rumba. They travelled through the region of the clouds, passed by the region of eternal darkness and ended up at a place called Tarambang Buriraw. In this place was a ridge called Talagas Kuting-tang where a seductive sorceress named Piganun lived.
Piganun changed herself to a beautiful maiden and captured the heart of Humadapnon. Buyong Matanayon begged with Humadapnon to leave the place with him but the latter refused. After seven months passed, Buyong Matanayon remembered that they have brought with them some ginger. One evening at dinner time Buyong Matanayon threw seven slices of ginger into the fire. When Pinganun smelled the odor of burning ginger she left the dinner table because sorcerers hated the odor of ginger. Immediately Buyong Matanayon struck Humadapnon, who became unconscious. He dragged his friend with him and they were able to escape.
They continued with their trek and everywhere they went they exacted revenge on all of Saragnayan’s people and relatives. One day they reached a place called Piniling Tubig who was ruled by Datu Umbaw Pinaumbaw. There was a big gathering in the village and when they asked what was going on they were told that the datu was giving his daughter for marriage to whoever could remove the huge boulder that rolled from a mountain into the center of the village. Many men tried their luck but no one so far was able to even move the stone.
Humadapnon took off his magic cape and used it to lift the stone and threw it back into the mountain. The datu kept his word and Humadapnon married his daughter. During the wedding feast Humadapnon heared about the beauty of the goddess of greed Burigadang Pada Sinaklang Bulawan from a guest minstrel who sang at the celebration.
After the wedding Humadapnon went to seek the hand of the goddess in marriage. Along the way he encountered Buyong Makabagting, son of the mighty Datu Balahidyong of Paling Bukid who was also travelling with the same purpose in mind. Upon learning of Humadapnon’s intent, Buyong Makabagting challenged him to a duel. They fought and Buyong Makabagting was no match to Humadapnon’s strength and skill. The fight ended when Buyong Makabagting surrendered and even promised to aid Humadapnon in his quest. Humadapnon married the goddess and brought her home.
Meanwhile, right after Humadapnon left to seek Saragnayan’s followers and relatives his brother Dumalapdap left for Burutlakan-ka-adlaw where the maiden Lubay-Lubyok Hanginun si Mahuyokhuyokon lived. For the trip he brought along Dumasig, the most powerful wrestler in Madya-as.
Several months later they came to a place called Tarambuan-ka-banwa where they encountered the two-headed monster Balanakon who guarded a narrow ridge leading to the place where the maiden lived.
With the aid of Dumasig, Dumalapdap killed Balanakon. However, upon approaching the gate of the palace where the maiden lived he was confronted by Uyutang, a bat-like monster with sharp poisonous claws. There ensued a bloody battle between the Dumalapdap and the monster. They fought for seven months and their skill and prowess seemed to be equal. But on the seventh month, Dumalapdap was able to grab on to Uyutang’s ankle and broke it. Then he took his iwang daniwan (magic dagger) and stabbed Uyutang under the armpit. Uyutang cried out so loud that the ridge where they were fighting broke into two and there was an earthquake. Half of the ridge became the island of Buglas (Negros) and the other became the island of Panay.
Dumalapdap married Lubay-Lubyok Hanginun si Mahuyokhuyokan and then took her home. Datu Paubari was very happy when he was reunited with his three sons and he prepared a feast in their honor. After the celebration, the three brothers left for different parts of the world. Labaw Donggon went to the north, Humadapnon went south, Dumalapdap to the west and Datu Paubari remained in the east

Background Information:

                Hinilawod is one of the many pieces of oral literature passed from one generation to the next, changed and morphed by the mananalaysay (storyteller) to one degree or another as he told it to his audience.
                Hinilawod was first discovered “by accident” in 1955, when F. Landa Jocano, Filipino anthropologist became interested in native folklore. He traveled the hinterlands of his home province, Panay, with two colleagues collecting folk songs, stories, and riddles. It was during one of those trips to the upland barrios of Lambunao, Maasin, Janiuay, and Calinog in Iloilo that his attention was called to a long and popular tale called Hinilawod. Portions of the story were sung to him and his colleague by an old man called Ulang Udig.
Returning the following year, together with a radio technician from Central Philippine University, he then recorded a portion of the story on tape in 1956.

                  However, when he returned, in 1957 to make a recording of the complete story, Ulang Udig refused to cooperate . Weeks later, he was introduced to a mountain singer named Hugan-an, who, after much cajoling, allowed herself to be tape recorded as she recounted both her story and the Hinilawod story. It took three weeks to complete the recording of the 30 hour epic poem.

A concise version of the story of Hinilawod can be found in the book, Philippine Mythology, authored by the Filipino anthropologist, Dr. F. Landa Jocano.

Confirmation of Learning:

1. Who married Dumalapdap?
2. What was the reason behind Datu Paubari's happiness?
3. Why did Balanapdap killed Balanakon?
4. After the wedding,where did Humadapnon went?
5. Who captured Humadapnon's heart?

Module 7: Biag ni Lam-ang
Reported by: Cielo Jane M. Miake
Sources: and Philippine Literature of Development of Communication Arts and Humanities College of Arts and Sciences Southwestern University

Biag ni Lam-ang (Life of Lam-ang)

The story dates its origin during the pre-Spanish period of the Philipines. It is one of the greatest Ilocano epic of the pre-colonial literature of the country. It is originally written in the Ilocano language but as time goes it has been translated to different languages. The story is set in the Northern Provinces of the Philippines. The story is a mix of adventure and romance with exciting and unpredictable outcomes. The story revolves around Lam-ang who is a very extraordinary guy. He started to talk at a very young age and was the one who choose his own name. His adventure began when his father, Don Juan, went to a battle but never came back. At the age of barely nine months he went to search for his father in the highlands where his father was said to go. Knowing that he is blessed with extraordinary well being, her mother, Namongan, allowed her to go. Lam-ang then went of to search for his father leaving his grieving mother. When Lam-ang reached the place, he was enraged upon seeing his father’s head on top of a bamboo pole that was stuck in the ground which was a scene that he had dreamed before reaching the place. Lam-ang then demanded to know the reason why did that happen to his father but he did not receive an answer, instead he was demanded by the chieftain of the village to go or else he would receive the same faith like his father. Instead of running Lam-ang bravely fought with the chieftain and its tribesmen. Lam-ang won the fight with less effort that serves as his revenge for his father. The epic poem also presented some humorous points. As Lam-ang was on his way home he passed by a river and then decided to have a dip. The dirt from his body caused the death of fishes, crabs, shrimps in the river. She was gladly attended by some of the women who saw him. Lam-ang upon reaching home decided to court his love interest, Ines. Despite his mother’s disapproval he followed his heart and set again another journey for her love. His adventures had never been that easy. He faced one of Ines’ suitor and monsters. But he won the battles with ease. Upon reaching the place, Lam-ang drew the attention of many and impressed Ines. He was helped by his magical pets: a rooster, a hen and a dog. Lam-ang’s rooster flapped its wings and a house toppled. This amazed everybody, especially Ines. Then, Lam-ang’s dog barked and the house aroused. Being invited in the lunch of the family of Ines, Lam-ang impressed Ines’ parents with his wealth and upon returning he gave to the family two golden ships. Their wedding was held with a lot of feastings. However Lam-ang’s story never ended there. He was sent to catch a gigantic shell but unfortunately she was swallowed by a shark, which he had earlier premonitioned. Her bones were recovered and Lam-ang was resurrected with the help of his magical pet. Ines was ordered by the rooster to wrap the bones with her tapis while the hen flaps its wings and the dog growling. In an instant Lam-ang happily rejoined his wife. The epic poem showed some of the earlier customs, culture, tradition and belief of the Ilocano people of the Philippines The story presented some of the qualities of the people of the Ilocos region- adventurous, hardy, and brave as strongly portrayed by Lam-ang. The epic poem presented the fact that life is full of trials and problems. One must be strong and just accept the reality that it is already part of life.

 Background Information:
 BIAG NI LAM-ANG (This epic is believed to have originated in La Union, composed in the seventeenth or eighteenth century by an anonymous poet. It was put in written form by Pedro Bukaneg, now considered the greatest Ilocano poet. The Christian elements in the narrative are supposed to have been his insertions. There are four versions of the Ilocano epic, one containing about 194 stanzas.)

Confirmation of Learning:
 1. Where is the setting of the story?
  2. Why did Lam-ang fight with the Igorots? 
  3. How did the battle end?
  4. What happened when Lam-ang fished for rarang?
  5. How did Doña Inez know that Lam-ang was dead? How was he revived? 


Jayson S Patalinghug said...

nice,,... more of this....research more stories...epics

wayne moises said...

A collection of Philippine mythology inspired from Filipinos as legendary figures long before Christianity
long before the Europeans and long before the Americans they are all pure Filipinos are pagan people they live in peace and harmony as well as unity and notable Filipinos as legends of history.thanks for the information about your comments in your opinion.From:Wayne

wayne moises said...

All mythical Filipinos is legendary and heroic but also just like any other mythology in the world.thanks!From:Wayne

Annica said...

What are the dimension of the epic Ibalon?

Annica said...

What are the dimension of the epic Ibalon?

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This blog focuses on Philippine Literature. The people of Manila and native groups within the Philippines used to write on bamboo and the arecaceae palm. They used knives for inscribing the ancient Tagalog script.

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